Prostate Cancer: Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Prostate cancer is cancer in men that develops in the prostate gland and is generally characterized by impaired urination. Most people with prostate cancer are over 65 years old. This cancer is not aggressive and develops slowly.

The prostate is a small gland located at the base of the bladder. This gland is part of the reproductive system and is positioned around the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis. The prostate also functions as a producer of semen, which is the fluid that is released with sperm during ejaculation.

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According to WHO data, prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men. It is estimated that about 1.3 million men worldwide suffer from prostate cancer. In Indonesia alone, prostate cancer ranks 2nd as the most common type of cancer in men.

Causes of Prostate Cancer

The cause of prostate cancer is a mutation or genetic change in the cells in the prostate gland. However, the cause of the mutation itself is not known for certain. In addition, there are several factors that can increase the risk of prostate cancer, including:

  • Increasing age
  • Suffering from obesity
  • A diet lacking in fiber, for example, lack of intake of antioxidants such as lycopene
  • Chemical exposure
  • Suffering from sexually transmitted diseases
  • Have a family who suffers from prostate cancer
  • Symptoms of Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer does not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, when cancer gets bigger or the prostate gland becomes inflamed, the patient will experience symptoms in the form of urinary disturbances, such as difficulty urinating or urinating less smoothly.

Prostate Cancer Screening and Diagnosis

Prostate cancer screening in the form of PSA and digital rectal tests is still controversial because these tests cannot provide specific results. Inaccurate test results can cause patients to undergo unnecessary and even dangerous examinations and treatments.

Therefore, first, discuss with your doctor whether or not you need to do prostate cancer screening through the PSA test.

To detect and determine the stage of prostate cancer, the doctor will perform an ultrasound examination of the prostate, MRI, and prostate biopsy.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

The doctor will determine the type of treatment based on the severity of cancer and the patient’s overall condition. Treatment methods that can be done are surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy, chemotherapy, and cryotherapy.